Social Sciences

Sovereignty

What is sovereignty about

Sovereignty is a term that refers to the sovereign, the superior or maximum authority , on whom the most important decision-making depends, having this superior authority and above all others.

From the point of view of politics , the sovereign is the one who has the power to make decisions, to dictate laws or to impose them without it being otherwise, he is not subject to any written law, but to divine or natural laws , of according to what was established by Jean Bodin in the year 1576.

Later, with the passage of time, Thomas Hobbes in the year 1651 constituted the sovereign in the only form of power and, therefore, his sovereignty did not depend on divine or natural law. Later, in 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau defined sovereignty as a power of the people, it is the so-called popular sovereignty, although each individual will be sovereign and subject at the same time making all citizens equal and free.

In this sense, we must point out that sovereignty is the independence of any State to create its laws and control its resources without the coercion of other States. For example, in some governments, such as in Venezuela, sovereignty resides in the people, according to the constitution of that country, from whom all the powers of the State emanate, through representatives elected by vote. This sovereignty is the so-called national sovereignty.

Natural sovereignty

This type of sovereignty refers to the nation , determined as the grouping of a specific group of people on a territory. In this sense, the new French and English ideologues and liberals who established this format of government sought to distribute decision-making capacity throughout the nation against the old power concentrated in the old kings and noble lords.

The will of the people, expressed through majorities, will be the guideline to be followed when making decisions of a political, economic or social nature. This point emphasizes once again the importance of the common and the nature of the nation as a multitudinous and heterogeneous entity in the face of the more individualistic role of the citizen.

Types of sovereignty

  • State sovereignty

This type of sovereignty refers to the autonomy of a territory and independence from other countries. Crossing this line of independence generally creates conflict between countries.

  • Minority or individual

It refers to those small groups that wield a lot of power and are capable of dominating and governing the majority, directing their territory and the citizens who inhabit it in a direct way. An example of this is the case of the kings or emperors of antiquity.

  • National sovereignty

Through this model, sovereignty or power lies in the people , who have the ability to choose their rulers freely and through an election process under a legal and constitutional framework. Through this process, it delegates its representative power to people that the people, through their votes, consider layers of being able to represent them.

  • Popular sovereignty

It is a model of sovereignty superior to the previous one, that is, a type of renewed national sovereignty. Through this model, absolute power is granted to the citizens , taking charge of this way of making the important decisions of constitution and structuring of power bodies with levels of voluntary representation.

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