The expression “in quotation marks” has also been used as a way of pointing out something or someone on the highlight of some unpleasant action . In this case, oral discourse indicates the importance of the matter in an ironic way.
The quotation marks are a resource to highlight the different levels of written speech . In other words, when they appear marking the dialogue in the narration between two characters.
It is important that quotation marks have an infinite number of uses in written discourse, which allows them to be recognized as a paralinguistic resource . Or what is the same, a resource that replaces in writing what is said in oral speech.
In the act of speaking face-to- face , for example, the speaker uses paralinguistic resources to convey his way of communicating through gestures . Gestures (looks, hands, throat clearing, or any indication of alerting the other) is a way of saying something.
In writing, paralinguistic resources are used to highlight the tone of the writing so that it differs in the text. Orthographic signs as points, parentheses and the quotes are example.
However, there are also the signs used in mobile messages (among them emoticons or certain combinations of letters), quotation marks, acrostics, among many other resources to communicate emotions constitute that type of paralinguism that is expressed by writing.
In this case, we are interested in the use of the quotation marks as the resource that is harnessed with more precision in writing.
- They mark the change of the narrator . When dialogue between characters needs to be taken into consideration, the use of quotation marks sets the tone for those turns of speech. Examples :
- When Luis approached his mother, he said “how do you know I was at Juan’s house?” to which she replied: “because it was hidden there.”
- They mark the verbatim citations in the paragraph. In written academic discourse , it is customary to take into consideration short original fragments of another text in order to highlight the other’s argument through the reinforcement of those sentences. Example :
- As the matter of Aristotelian ethics arises, it is to know that “ Any art and any doctrine and, likewise, every action and choice, it seems that some good is straightened out” (p.4).
- They mention the titles of a work . When you want to highlight a written work by an important author, the use of quotation marks mark or emphasize that work. Examples :
- According to the work entitled “Lanzas Coloradas” by Uslar Pietri …
- Yesterday, in the many philosophical works, I found Plato’s book “The Republic” …
- In Social Phenomenology, the book by Schütz (1998) stands out, whose title is “The phenomenology of the social world” …
- Use the double meaning . As a paralinguistic resource, the quotation marks highlight the ironic take of a speaker towards an event that he considers disagreeable and even sarcastic. Examples:
- Ricardo is bothered by my perfume; of course it has to be because “perfume” is something else …
- Pedro’s wealth is immense, yes “immense are the tricks” that he did …
- They stamp the name of people or things . The quotation marks are used to accentuate the proper name of a person or of the things that are to be named in order to indicate or clarify what is written. Examples:
- The cat was named “Mimi”
- The name of ” María Estuardo” stood out politically in her time …
- The name “Francisco” etymologically means “frankness” …