Social Sciences


What is perestroika?

The term perestroika was used to name in 1985 a restructuring process in the political and economic model of the so-called Soviet Union. The word comes from the ‘перестройка’ Russian who translated the Spanish means ‘restructuring’. The objective of this change focused on anchoring and ensuring the future of socialism in the nation, from an innovative vision. In addition, it was intended to implement a new trade and market system, this opened the development of the private economy.

However, the measures that were taken through the perestroika reform left great damage to the economy. There was a notable increase in inflation, which allowed scarcity and poverty will double. Those who benefited from these changes were a minority, they obtained their money and resources from activities that were not considered entirely legal. The crisis that the Soviet Union had been going through reached its boiling point, the economy stagnated, thus generating a collapse in the system .

Now, the Russian lawyer and politician Mikhail Gorbachev is known as the individual in charge of implementing perestroika. Although this character was not the creator of this reform, it was during his tenure as the top Soviet leader when it was applied throughout the state. Together with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev sought to eliminate the crisis and corruption in which the entire USSR had plunged. Despite all attempts to boost economic and political development, perestroika led to the decline of the country .

Consequences of perestroika

  • Budget reduction for military expenditures in order to promote peaceful international relations.
  • Neglect and disinterest in socialist countries belonging to the third world.
  • Support and inclination towards Western countries with a capitalist system and model. This contributed to foreign countries managing certain capital within the USSR.
  • Inflation and increase in prices and salaries. It allowed a decline in the economy leaving scarcity and poverty.
  • The media were opened with the aim of allowing freedom of expression and transparent information.
  • Perestroika generated results that caused disinterest on the part of the member countries of the USSR. As a consequence, it was dissolved between 1990 and 1991.
  • It allowed the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Russian Federation.

What were your goals?

At an economic level:

  • It focused on the adaptation and conversion of the market, it sought to modernize it.
  • The development of private enterprise was allowed and encouraged with the aim of boosting internal and external investment, thus freeing up the economy.
  • Perestroika also supported and promoted autonomy in companies, its objective with this was based on guaranteeing fruitful and quality development.

On a social level:

  • The aim was to eliminate food shortages.
  • Work on a system of optimization and improvement of public services .
  • Promote socialist principles and social equality.
  • Allow and support freedom of expression from any social group.
  • Solidly structure the legal order in terms of the rights and humanitarian duties of men or women.
  • Eradicate absence from work to guarantee decent monetary acquisition .

Perestroika measures

  • They focused on prioritizing and applying measures that would contribute to the social, economic, scientific and technological development of the nation.
  • Measures were also implemented to guarantee and improve the quality of life throughout the nation.
  • It was proposed that foreign companies will work together with those of the nation in their formation and preparation.
  • Creation of associations within the nation to guarantee economic movement through small companies or businesses.
  • Discipline was applied and promoted in every workplace.

Examples of countries that formed as a result of perestroika

  • Estonia.
  • Latvia.
  • Lithuania.
  • Belarus.
  • Moldova.
  • Ukraine.
  • Russia .
  • Georgia.
  • Armenia.
  • Tajikistan.
  • Turkmenistan.
  • Kazakhstan

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