Health and Fitness

Oncology

What is oncology about?

Oncology is a branch of medicine that is responsible for analyzing and treating the various tumors that may occur in the human body, both malignant and benign. In this sense, oncology is in charge of detecting, controlling and fighting cancer.

In this sense, when it comes to the treatment that is required to combat this disease , we talk about the possibility of subjecting the affected patient to surgeries to remove the tumor or for treatment through medications or therapies that do not warrant surgery, as is the case. of chemotherapies and radiotherapy.

Oncology is the main one in charge of, among other things, attending and offering palliative care to those people who suffer from terminal illnesses through studies and research through genetic tests, focusing directly on the detection of possible tumors.

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In this sense, it is important to note that tumors, whether malignant or benign, can occur in anyone and at any time in life, that is, there are multiple factors that can trigger the development of a tumor, among them we can mention:

  1. Genetically: this type of cancer or tumor can develop by inheritance or family genetics through DNA mutation .
  2. Biological : it can be caused by various reactions of the body against parasites, bacteria or viruses.
  3. Chemical : as a result of exposure to various components such as tobacco, carbon dioxide, aflatoxins, among others.
  4. Physical : originated from ultraviolet or ionizing radiation.

At present it can be said that oncological surgery is the most effective therapeutic way to end this disease and can be carried out with numerous objectives such as the analysis in which case it is called biopsy, the preventive one, the study of the state of the cancer or the decrease in tumor mass.

Radiation therapy is another of the most useful and used treatments to deal with this serious disease. Specifically, it consists of the use of what are high-energy X-rays with the clear aim of reducing tumors and also eliminating so-called cancer cells. When this alternative is most effective, it is to kill small tumors.

Regarding chemotherapy , it is important to point out that it is one of the methods most used by oncologists and that it can be specified as polychemotherapy (when it is based on the combination of multiple cytotoxic drugs that have different mechanisms of action), adjuvant chemotherapy ( given after a main treatment such as surgery), neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy (recommended before undergoing radiation or surgical treatments), and concomitant radiochemotherapy (also known as chemoradiotherapy, which is given concurrently or together radiation therapy).

Examples of oncologists

  • Oncologist surgeons : they are in charge of extracting tumors through surgical interventions.
  • Medical oncologists: they are in charge of supplying the various medications necessary for chemotherapies and immunotherapies.
  • Radiation oncologists: they are in charge of providing treatment through radiation.
  • Oncologist gynecologists: they are the doctors who specialize in treating the various types of cancer that may occur in the woman’s uterus or part of it.
  • Pediatric oncologist : they are the specialists in treating this terrible disease in children or adolescents, taking care of the various types of cancer that may occur.

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