Because they are waters above or below the surface of the mainland, these areas are characterized by being places of seasonal or intermittent flooding. They can be inland waters, rivers, lakes, flood zones, reserves, glaciers, aquifers, etc.
Types of inland waters
There are three different types of inland waters:
1 – Surface waters
These are waters of rivers, lagoons, streams, etc. Man uses these surface waters for irrigation, livestock, recreation or the disposal of industrial or domestic waste . In turn, these can be fresh or salt water. When these are large, they are called inland seas .
Examples of inland surface waters are:
- The Mediterranean Sea
- The black lagoon (Soria)
- The dead Sea
- Posadilla Lagoon (Ciudad Real)
- Caspian Sea
- Lake Titicaca (Bolivia, Peru)
- Gallocanta Lagoon (Teruel)
2 – Frozen waters
They are continental waters that can be found in the form of snow on top of mountains and represent a water reserve. 65% are in cold areas where the snow is perpetual there.
Examples of frozen inland waters :
- The Perito Moreno glacier (Argentina)
- Petermann (Greenland)
- Black Glacier and Jokulsarlon (Iceland)
- Viedma (Argentina)
- Gray (Chile)
- Ferrar (Antarctica)
- Olden (Norway)
- Mont Blanc (France)
- Athabasca (Canada)
- Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)
3 – Groundwater
They are continental waters that are filtered from precipitation and are suspended in the form of groundwater below a surface of land.
For the waters to be able to descend and become underground, it is necessary that they be in rocky or porous areas. That is to say, that the surface where the water filters is sufficiently fractured, fissured and the earth or rocks allow the descent of these waters. However, we must clarify that not all the waters that descend by infiltration, become groundwater since many times it happens that these evaporate.
Finally, it is important to say that continental groundwater is also called aquifers .
Examples of inland groundwater (aquifers):
- Taoudeni Basin (Africa)
- Nubian sandstones (Africa)
- Yllurmeden Basin (Africa)
- Great Artesian Basin (Australia)
- Guaraní Aquifer (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay)
- North of the Sahara (Africa)
- Murzuq Basin (Africa)
- Ogalla Aquifer (United States)
- Canning Officer (Australia)
- Saudi Aquifer (Asia)