Hydrocarbons are chemical substances that are composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms , the structure of these atoms determine the type of hydrocarbon, generally they are obtained naturally as are the substances obtained in oil plants than with heavy machinery. they manage to obtain this element from the depths of the earth.
When hydrocarbons are extracted in their liquid state, they are called oil, but when their state is gaseous, the name it bears is natural gas. For the production of the different types there are several industrial processes that currently have dozens of uses in daily life , the most common is the production of energy and also for the manufacture of all kinds of products.
Despite its multiple benefits, hydrocarbons have had negative effects on the environment, especially in recent decades. There have been well-known cases of accidents during the transport of hydrocarbons and this has caused contamination of natural environments such as seas, lakes, rivers or also accidents in oil plants.
Examples of hydrocarbons
- Natural gas
- Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
- Methane gas
- Propane gas
These compounds are considered organic solvents , which means that they emit vapor, the inappropriate use of these substances can cause intoxication in the body of humans and animals, it can occur through the respiratory tract, by contact with the skin or by direct consumption via oral.
Hydrocarbons can be classified:
- aliphatic: when they do not have an aromatic ring
- aromatic: they are those that have a cyclic structure and are necessarily governed by Huckel’s rule.
According to their structure, they can be classified into:
- Cyclic : are those that are characterized by having a closed chain and in turn are divided into monocyclic and polycyclic.
- Acyclic: better known as open chain. These in turn are divided into linear or branched.