Geology is the science of the earth: especially the processes inside the earth and the transformations that affect minerals and rocks on the earth’s surface. Geology is not just about the present – it is the science of the history of the earth; the processes of its formation, its development, the changes, up to the current situation.
Geology was born from a part of the human being’s desire to understand his environment – his world. The other thrust was the need to improve their environment: The search for natural resources – here mineralogical, geological – was much more efficient with a good knowledge of the earth’s processes.
Some examples of geology:
Geophysics: Study of the physics of the earth: gravity anomalies, discontinuities in the prolongation of seismic waves – seismology, the earth’s magnetic field.
Mineralogy: Study of minerals: Internal structures of minerals, chemical composition, classification.
Petrology: Study of rocks, their origin, the processes of their formation, their composition.
Petrography: It is a branch of petrology, which deals with the description of rocks, their mineral content and their texture, the classification of rocks.
Geochemistry: The distribution and abundance of the elements in the different parts of the earth’s crust are specially studied and the aim is to explain the distribution of the elements in rocks by means of geological processes such as crystallization by differentiation from a magma, by hydrothermal processes, which have influenced the rock, by metamorphic processes, among others.
Structural geology: Analysis and interpretation of tectonic structures in the earth’s crust. Knowledge of the forces in the crust that produce fracturing, folding and mountains. (Faults-Folds-Orogenesis).
Regional Geology: The geology of different regions such as South America, Europe, Chile, the Atacama region is studied in detail, that is, the geological history, the distribution of the rocks, the deposits, the deformation style of the rocks of the region in question among others
Historical Geology: Study of the geological epochs from the formation of the earth approximately 4.6 Ga (= 4600Ma) ago until today, from each epoch the important geological processes are studied, which have happened on the earth, the composition and structure of the earth and the atmosphere, the position of the poles and the continents, where mountains and sedimentary basins have formed, the development of life in each epoch, when the different forms appeared of the life.
Paleontology: Study of the life of past geological ages; study of fossils: Classification, recognition. Improve knowledge of evolution.
Stratigraphy: Study of stratified rocks, by their nature, their existence, their relationships with each other and their classification.
Sedimentology: Study of sediments (sand, sandstone, gravel, conglomerate) and their formation. Analysis of the deposition environment as the physical properties in the water of a river (current speed and others).
Soil mechanics: Study of the properties of soils to find land suitable for construction, to calculate and avoid geological risks such as skidding rubble.
Hydrogeology: Investigations of the quantity and quality of underground water, which is the water present under the earth. It is about the interaction between rock, soil and water.
Economic Geology: Exploration of metallic or non-metallic deposits. Evaluation of the economy of a mineral deposit or product.
Exploration / Prospecting: Search for geological deposits with economic value. Through geophysics, geochemistry, mapping, aerial photos and satellite images.
Environmental Geology: Search for contaminated sectors, forms and processes of contamination. Especially from water, groundwater and soils. Soil and water quality research.