The human being has certain physical and psychological characteristics that lead us to fulfill many functions. A disability is that physical or mental condition that diminishes or alters the motor or intellectual functions of the people who suffer from them.
- Physical disability: are those related to motor or physical problems that prevent them from functioning like most. It may be due to the loss of a limb, irreparable broken bones, or an injury that makes it difficult to move freely.
- Sensory disability: it has to do with difficulties in the performance of any of the senses. The most common are visual and hearing impairment.
- Intellectual: it is related to the intellectual functioning that hinders social relationships, the development of autonomy, slows down learning at an academic or work level, etc.
- Psychic: describes those problems at a behavioral and adaptive behavior level, generally based on the suffering of mental disorders.
- Visceral: it has to do with disorders or pathologies in organs such as the heart, kidneys or any other that jeopardizes natural functions.
- Multiple: is one that combines at least two of the above disabilities. In some cases a clinical picture is created where one disability is complemented by the other, in other cases they have nothing to do with each other.
Examples of disability
Monoplegia : it is a paralysis of a single limb after suffering damage to the nerve that innervates that area.
Paraplegia : occurs when there is an injury to the spinal cord, in the dorsal area. Those affected are prevented from moving their legs and feet. In addition to not being able to walk, some find it difficult to have sex.
Quadriplegia : it is caused by a cervical spinal cord injury that causes the total loss of the ability to move in the lower limbs and in the total or partial loss of the ability to move the upper limbs.
Hemiplegia: it results from a lesion in the nervous system that produces paralysis, not in the left part, but in the opposite or contralateral part. Sometimes it stems from cerebrovascular accidents or head trauma.
Spina bifida : it is a congenital malformation where the neuronal tube and the spinal column do not close completely during the formation of the fetus, which causes damage to the nerves and the spinal cord that prevent or hinder the movement of the person.
Muscular dystrophy : muscle tissue loses tone and strength, which results in difficulties in performing movements.
Cerebral palsy : is a chronic medical condition caused by problems during the brain development of the unborn baby, producing serious effects on motor skills: slowness of movement, stiffness, agitation, seizures or perhaps complete paralysis of the entire muscular system.
Amputation: refers to the loss, by extirpation or accident, of any limb or part of the body that causes some difficulty when carrying out physical activities.
Deafness: they have a total or profound deficiency.
Hard of hearing : are those people who have a partial hearing disability, that is, they have part of their hearing resource that can even improve with the use of specialized hearing aids.
Blindness : it is the total loss of vision or lack of this sense from birth. It is also known as blindness to those with a serious visual impairment that classifies them as legally blind, although they still maintain minimal vision.
Among the intellectual disabilities are autism or mental retardation.
Other examples are visceral disabilities : cystic fibrosis of the pancreas and end-stage chronic kidney failure.