The Constructivism is an avant – garde style that combines the artistic with the technical (construction), to create works of art dynamic. It is classified as an artistic movement rather than another area, although it takes into account elements such as space and time.
Basically, it promotes the use of people’s skills and abilities to apply them in the production of knowledge, using techniques such as discarding, relation, transitivity and others.
History of constructivism (artistic current)
The term constructivism was born in 1913 when the writer Nikolay Punin questioned the work of the painter Vladimir Tatlin. However, it was in 1920 when a whole movement began to be created around a manifesto that said that space and time had been born, and that they are the only ways in which art and life in general should be created.
This movement, born in Russia and closely related to the revolution and world events that left great crises in Europe, establishes that art must be seen as the construction of buildings, which follows analogous methods and techniques.
- The elements are typical of this art: light, space and time, and the work is built around them.
- It is closely related to technology and industries, since it was the context in which this movement was born.
- It states that works of art must be in tune with the time and space where it was created, with an invisible structure that can be interpreted within the work itself.
- The pieces of art in this style usually have geometric figures that generate an abstract ‘whole’.
- Reject the art of the upper classes; of the bourgeoisie of the time.
- It states that people have previous mental structures that can be changed through the adaptation process.
- The goal is for the learner to know “how” he learns, and not just “what” he is going to learn.
- People must be participatory in the learning process, they must not only dedicate themselves to receiving the lessons.
- With constructivism, information is selected and transformed, hypotheses are designed and decisions are made according to the cognitive structure of each person.
- The role of the teacher is to motivate the learner to explore his interior to determine which of his knowledge prices can be used to adapt them to the new ones.
- Teaching should be based on creating cognitive conflicts to stimulate the learner to use the previous knowledge that seems most logical or correct.
Examples of constructivism
- Monument to the Third International , by Vladimir Tatlin.
- Illustration ” La Première aventure celeste de Monsieur Antipyrine “, by Tristan Tzara’s.
- ” Mask ” by Vadym Meller.
- ” Salomé “, by Alekxandra Ekstre.
- ” ARTFINDER: Orbital “, by Liam Hennessy.
- ” Letatlin “, by Vladimir Tatlin.
- ” Composition A XXI “, by László Moholy-Nagy.
- ” Proun 99 “, by El Lisitski.
- ” Rising, Falling, Flying “, by Sophie Taeuber-Arp.
- ” Figures in five colors “, by Joaquín Torres García.
In education :
- Present a discrepant experiment on the study of Bernoulli Education, whose objective is to captivate the interest of the student and insert it into the study of fluids. The work will implement the constructivist approach to the observation, conjecturization and analysis of phenomenology.
- An investigation whose objective is the planning, development and evaluation of a didactic project based on the work of concepts on fluid mechanics. The methodology used was qualitative and considered a total of 47 students from initial, primary and secondary education. Learning is shown to be most effective when students confront their ideas with practical experiences.
- Learning process with direct student participation:
- Ask real questions: What do I want to know about this topic? What do I know about it? How do I know? What do I need to know? What could be an answer?
- Locate resources: What kinds of resources could help? Where can I find them? How do I know the information is valid? Who is responsible for the information? What other information is there?
- Interpreting the information: How relevant is this to my question? What parts support my answer? How does it relate to what else I know? What parts do not support my answer? Does it pose new questions?
- Report findings: What is my main idea? Who is my audience? What else is important? How does it relate? How do I use the media to express my message?