Science

Examples of consonants and vowels

Consonate
A consonant is a sound in the oral language caused by the closing or narrowing of the vocal tract by approaching or contacting the organs of articulation in such a way as to cause audible turbulence. The term consonant comes from Latin and originally referred to “sound together with” or “sound with” being the idea that consonants had no sound in themselves, and in Latin that they only appeared next to a vowel. This, however, is an unfortunate conception of consonants (since there are languages ​​where there are long words that completely lack vowels ). In modern linguistics consonants are defined in terms of constriction of the vocal tract.
Consonant signs of the alphabet
In the Latin alphabet the consonants are:

BCDFGHJKLMN Ñ PQRSTVWXYZ

Although each language has its own consonants, many of these coincide due to the influence of the Roman Empire, well, in Russian we have:

& # 1041; & # 1042; & # 1043; & # 1044; & # 1046; & # 1047; & # 1050; & # 1051; & # 1052; & # 1053; & # 1055; & # 1056; & # 1057; & # 1058; & # 1060; & # 1061; & # 1062; & # 1063; & # 1064; & # 1065;

Very similar to Latinas for the same reason.
Since the number of consonants in the world’s languages ​​is much greater than the number of consonant letters available in any alphabet,
Phonetic classification of consonants
Every consonant is phonetically characterized by a set of distinctive features. In the languages ​​of the world all these distinctive features have been found (although not in all languages ​​all these features are always relevant):

The mode of articulation, according to how the air current is obstructed, according to this feature the consonants are divided in nasal, obstructive (fricatives, affricates and stops) and approximants.
The point of articulation according to the place in the oral tract where the obstruction of the air flow occurs.
The mode of phonation that has to do with how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation of sound, according to this feature the consonants can be voiced or deaf.
The VOT (“voice onset time”) that has to do with the phonation delay time, according to this feature we have aspirated and not aspirated.
The mechanism of the air current, which classifies the consonants into pulmonary egressives, ejectives, clicks and implosives.
The length or gemination, which especially affects their duration.
The articulatory force that divides them into tense or lax.
Vowel
In phonetics, a vowel or monophthong is a natural spoken language sound that is pronounced with the vocal tract open, with no increase in air pressure at any point above the glottis. This is in contrast to consonants, where there is an obstruction or closure at some point in the vocal tract. the vowelsthey are considered syllabic; an equivalent sound, open, but not syllabic, is called a semi-vowel.

In all languages, the vowels form the nucleus of the syllables, while the consonants form the attack or beginning and (in the languages ​​that have it) the coda. However, in some languages ​​it is possible to form syllabic nuclei using other sounds, such as the syllabic l of the English word table <& # 712; te & # 618; .bl & # 809;> (the stroke under the l indicates that it is syllabic and period separates syllables), or the r in the Serbian word vrt<vr&#809;t>“yard”.

There is a conflict between the phonetic definition of “vowel” (a sound produced without obstruction of the vocal tract) and the phonological definition (a sound that forms the top, or peak, of a syllable). and They serve to illustrate this conflict: both occur practically without obstruction of the vocal tract (so that phonetically they would be considered as vowels ), but they appear at the limit of the syllables, as for example at the beginning of the Spanish words “yo” and ” bone “(which would suggest that phonologically they are consonants). The American linguist Kenneth Pike proposed the terms “vocoid” for vowels phonics, and “vocal” for vocal fonológicas.2 According to this terminology, and they are classified as vocoids, not vowels .

The word “vowel” comes from the Latin vocalis, which means “with the voice”, since, in most languages, words, and therefore speech, are impossible without vowels . The term “vowel” is commonly used to refer to both vowel sounds and the written signs that represent them.
Joint
Vowels
See also: IPA, Consonants
Edit Anterior Semianterior Central Semiposterior Posterior
Closed

i • y & # 616; • & # 649; & # 623; • ue & # 798; • ø & # 798; & # 618; • & # 655; • & # 650; e • ø & # 600; • & # 629; & # 612; • o & # 618; & # 776; • & # 650; & # 776; & # 601; & # 612; & # 798; • o & # 798; & # 603; • œ & # 604; • & # 606; & # 652; • & # 596; æ & # 592; ä • a • & # 630; & # 593; • & # 594;
Almost closed
ajar
Middle
ajar
almost open
Open
Where symbols appear in pairs, one
on the right represents a rounded vowel.

X-rays of the<i, u,=”” a,=”” &#593;=””>. by Daniel Jones.
The articulatory features that distinguish the various vowel sounds determine their vowel “quality.” Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels according to three common characteristics “height” (vertical dimension, also called “opening”), “location” (horizontal dimension) and “roundness” (position of the lips, also called “labialisation”). In the vowel box to the right, these three parameters are indicated. However, there are other possible traits, such as the position of the veil (nasality), type of vocal vibration (phonation) and position of the root of the tongue.</i,></vr&#809;t>

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