Social Sciences


The Ethnography is a branch of anthropology that studies the origin of peoples. This discipline investigates about culture, social behavior and other aspects that make up the self-determination of different human groups .

This study method was initially developed by Bronislaw Malinovski, Sapir and Whorf, among other anthropologists.

How to do an ethnological study?

Ethnography is responsible for collecting data, organizing it and describing the history , cultural practices, beliefs, legends, dialect and more of the human races existing throughout the planet.

In order to establish all this information, it is necessary to carry out a systematic study using field research methods , such as observation and data collection, taking into account the experiences of the members of the groups.

The ethnographer must be able to live with a certain people to carry out his studies from his own experience, but all the information must be objective. It should be supported by audiovisual material that records everything it has to describe about the towns. Immediate annotations, diaries and other types of pertinent records will also be necessary to assist with the record.

In summary, the study goes through the processes of: observation, description and analysis.


An ethnological study has the following characteristics :

  • The first stage is Participant Observation. The ethnologist must enter a community that he wishes to investigate.
  • The data collected must come from testimonies and observations real .
  • The data must be naturalistic .
  • It is through qualitative analysis that all objective data will be processed.

Types of ethnography

There are basically two types of ethnographic approach:

Macroethnography. It is about those behaviors and practices from the individual or small community point of view, in order to have a record of the entire human group to which they belong.

Microethnography. Contrary to the previous one, this method starts from broad areas to the particular. In this way, an attempt is made to understand the individual behaviors of the members of an ethnic group or race under investigation.

Ethnography example

Here are some methods used in an ethnographic study:

Analytics in social networks

Social networks have become a good platform to analyze human behavior from at least some points of view. Many of these tools offer statistics that work for data collection and analytics.


It is one of the most used methods and in fact it should be mandatory. Researchers must live in the community they want to study.

Online diaries

Online or offline newspapers refer to some tool or material where annotations can be made ‘in situ’ that lead to a clearer idea about the culture and other elements of the peoples.

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