In its conception, this science was dedicated to the study of teaching, that is, the “art” of teaching. However, over time the obvious relationship between teaching and learning was established, which is why today it is also known as the theory of teaching-learning. This discipline is the amalgam between theory and practice.
Models and components of didactics
Throughout the years, many didactic models have been applied, such as: normative, initiative and approximate , which seek to adapt the teaching processes to modernity, but without leaving behind the culture of the geographical place where it is applied.
The didactic process is composed of the teacher, the students, the learning objectives, the teaching methods and the learning context. All these elements should be highlighted in each of the models that you want to apply at any given time.
Types of didactics
- General didactics: focuses on determining systematic forms of teaching without specifying an area of application. They are generalized techniques and adaptable to almost any area.
- Specific didactics: it is the opposite of the previous type. They are techniques that can only be applied in one area of study, so its development will focus only on each field.
- Differential didactics: takes into account the evolution and characteristics of the individual to personalize teaching based on these elements.
Laws of didactics
First law of didactics:
Relations of the teaching-educational process with the social context: The school in life.
It establishes that the teaching and learning process is related to the social context. This law proposes that the teaching process is a subsystem of society , and that it, and its needs, is what defines the objectives and aspirations of this process. However, it also establishes that the teaching-educational process has its own objective and its own personality, although it depends on the social.
The second law of didactics:
Internal relationships between the components of the teaching-educational process: Education through instruction.
Starting from the first law, each didactic unit of the teaching-educational process, as a whole, must prepare the student to face all kinds of problems and solve them in the best way. In each subject, possible problems are presented that correspond to the area addressed by that subject, to teach the student how to solve them using appropriate tools and also linked to that area of study.
Examples of didactics
«Examples of the Monterrey Technological System.
Course: Introduction to Computing (Cb95801).
Teacher: Ma. Guadalupe Roque Díaz.
Didactic strategy and technique used: Exhibition in class.
Organized in small groups, the students carry out an investigation on the hardware characteristics of one of the following computers: Commodore 64, Apple IIe, NeXT, PC XT, PC AT, PS 25 and compare it with some current personal computer. The characteristics to consider are the following:
– Name, brand and model
– Amount of RAM
– Hard disk storage capacity
– Processor name and speed
– Monitor resolution
– Additional hardware
– Date of appearance on the market
In the class session, the teacher randomly chooses a member of each group to make a brief and concise presentation (minimum 5 minutes, maximum 10). It is required to use some type of support visual (slides, video, flip chart, blackboard, etc.) and to elaborate a writing based on certain previously established criteria.
Based on the contributions made by the members of each group, the teacher leads the students to the terminology and basic aspects of a computer.
Learning that is promoted with this activity: ability to learn on their own, ability to analyze, synthesize and evaluate, and good oral and written communication ».
«Course: Operations Management.
Teacher: Luis Martín Reyes González.
Didactic strategy and technique used: Case study.
In the “case resolution” activity, the teacher looks for some key elements in solving cases taken from reality.
Description of the process: prior to the session corresponding to Module 4, the student must access a specific case in the “MediaCenter” and solve it (“Tennant Co.” case). The student will be able to use a support material in the section of this module called: «consult the student’s activities», this document provides useful information for the resolution of the case.
The student performs an individual reading of the case, analyzes the solution alternatives with his team, delivers the agreed solution in writing in the class session, or places it in the “CourseRoom” before the session. In the face-to-face session, each team presents its proposal and at the end all the groups enrich their work with the proposals via the technological platform (“CourseRoom / Discussion”).
With this series of activities, students learn about the subject “just in time” (JIT, for its acronym in English). Learning that is promoted in this activity: clear awareness of the country’s needs, ability to identify and solve problems, teamwork, ability to make decisions and work culture.