Ar refers to a title given to the Emperor of Russia as well as the sovereign of Bulgaria such as Serbia. This term was used to name a monarch who was in charge of ruling for a long time in some regions of Eastern Europe and mainly in Russia.
A Tsar can be compared to a king of the western world since both had absolute power, that is, the decisions rested with that person and the governmental powers by divine decree, belonged to that person.
It comes from the Russian “tsar” and roots from the Latin “caesar”, a name adopted in commemoration of Julius Caesar and that he called all the men who held the position that way. The feminine form of this term is zariza.
It was a mode of government that was driven by the tsars . This type of government was called Tsarism. Decisions regarding the territory where the Tsar ruled were relevant to him, therefore all political and economic decisions were made by the Tsar.
- It was believed to be ordained by God.
- Had absolute power
- All political and economic decisions were made by the Tsar.
- It had religious power.
- He considered himself emperor and sovereign.
- It was ruled under an autocratic monarchy.
- He came from a landed nobility.
- Civil and political freedoms were limited.
- The economy was largely dependent on foreign capital.
The first Russian Tsar
Ivan IV , grandson of Ivan the Great, was heir to the throne when he was only three years old and officially occupied it at the age of 13 during the year 1547. It tells the story that his first years of government were of peace and prosperity to the country. As time went by, his mandate became more and more aggressive and inhumane, creating laws that converted the peasants into positions and tied them to the lands they worked. He also created an army of the tsar that he could manage against the Russian nobility.
With the passage of time he involved his country in a war that lasted more than 20 years against Livonia and that brought nothing but death and famine to the country without any territorial adherence to the country. During this period his wife Anastasia passed away and this contributed to his insanity, instability and paranoid thoughts. The army that had formed the oprichniki little by little became a power that they began to abuse without contemplation.
The tsar went so far as to order his first-born son to be assassinated and generated a wave of terror throughout the country, murdering and executing people in ways as the bible explained the concept of hell. Later, after the death of his first-born son, he was filled with guilt and was renamed in the church and began to wear a habit, even at the time of his death he was buried with a habit in the year 1584. By then the country was submerged in a absolute poverty and almost on the edge of the abyss.
- Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) (1547-1584)
- Simeon Bekbulatovich (1574-1576) (false Tsar appointed by Ivan IV)
- Feodor I (1584-1598) – last of the Riurikovich dynasty
- Boris Godunov (1598-1605)
- Feodor II (1605)
- Demetrius I (1605-1606)
- Basil IV (1606-1610)
Rupture of the successor line
- Michael I (1613-1645) – first of the Romanov dynasty, elected as Tsar
- Alexis I (1645-1676)
- Feodor III (1676-1682)
- Ivan V (1682-1696) (with Pedro I)
- Pedro I (Peter the Great) (1682-1721) (with Ivan V until 1696)
- Catherine I (1725–1727)
- Peter II (1727–1730)
- Anne (1730–1740)
- Ivan VI (1740–1741)
- Elizabeth I (1741–1762)
- Peter III (1762)
- Catherine II (1762–1796)
- Paul I (1796–1801)
- Alexander I (1801–1825)
- Nicholas I (1825–1855)
- Alexander II (1855–1881)
- Alexander III (1881–1894)
- Nicholas II (1894-1917)