Bibliography example

It is customary, within educational training, to order the completion of written assignments; especially during higher or university level training. Each time one is made, different printed resources, websites , audio, video, among others, are used, which serve as support within the argumentation or construction of the text. These resources are called ‘Bibliography’.

Sometimes it is called “Bibliographic References”, since it is the place where the references used within a work, report , monograph , or thesis are summarized .

Where to locate the Bibliography?

Normally, we place it at the end of the text or written work, in the form of a list, following an alphabetical order and using subdivisions such as: type of publication, subject or areas of study, which, in turn, follow the writing characteristics established forever by the American Psycological Association and which we all know as APA Standards .

On these standards, there are many editions that have been corrected and improved year after year, which indicate step by step how to cite or refer to the sources used in a written work; also, different ways of making a bibliography. However, the format you choose to use will be the one you must follow throughout the work, to maintain order and consistency, especially writing.

Importance of Bibliography

This list of resources used or cited within a written work is considered of utmost importance for each written composition that we make. This, in view of the fact that it is well known that none of the ideas developed are totally ours, but have been previously established or named by some other person or organization to which mention should be made, especially through bibliographic citations and , finally, through the bibliography.

It is of good importance to place a bibliography at the end of our work, not only to cite those materials that served us as support, but also to enlighten the readers about those documents where they could find the same information that has been cited or consulted in the work .

General rule of a Bibliography

Each bibliography includes (by document or reference, cited or consulted) the last names and initials of the authors or editors, year of publication and title of the cited reference (book, magazine, website, audio, video, etc.).

There are other requirements within the aforementioned APA Standards, but these are the main elements.

How should you organize a Bibliography?

The first thing we always put is the last name of the author or authors. That is why the bibliography must be arranged alphabetically according to the authors’ surnames.

If you want to subdivide it by type of source (books, web pages, scientific articles, audios, among others), you must also organize it alphabetically according to the authors’ last names.

When you cite several works by the same author, it is recommended that you replace their surname with a hyphen and continue with the other reference data (year, title, city, publisher).

How to make a Bibliography according to APA Standards

Below we show you how to make a bibliography, following the APA Standards, according to the different types of documents that can be used as sources in a written work.

Clarification: the elements required by the reference (author, year, publisher, etc.) will be placed according to the type of publication (book, magazine, web, etc.), including their order and punctuation marks (separated by points, commas, placed in parentheses, etc.)

  • Book

Last name, First initial (year): Full title of the font in italics. Edition city: Publishing house that publishes.

  • Scientific magazine

Surname, Name of the Author (year): Full title of the article in italics. Name of the Journal, issue number or volume where the article is located. Pages that the article occupies in the magazine.

As for the pages, it would be, for example: Pp. 50 – 68.

  • Encyclopedias / Dictionaries

Editor. (Year of publication). Title of the encyclopedia in italics. (Edition number or Volume). City where it was published: Editorial House.

  • Thesis

Author. (year). Font title in italics. (type of thesis and mention). Name of the institution where it is published, place.

  • Newspapers

Author. (publication date). Title of the article in italics. Name of the Newspaper, pages.

  • Videos

Producer, & Director. (year). Title of the video in italics (Format: DVD, Mp4, etc.). Place where it occurred: Name of the filming company.

  • Sources extracted from a Web

This type of reference follows the same order as the aforementioned sources, only that at the end of the data is placed: Online document available at: web address or url.

Bibliography example

  • VV. (1922). Politics and economy in Venezuela . 1810-1991. (2nd ed.). Caracas: John Boulton Foundation.
  • Fernández, Z. & García A., (2004). The thematic agendas of Aló Presidente and El Nacional: a relational vision between 1999 and 2002 . Caracas: Andrés Bello Catholic University.
  • Fidias, A. (2006 ). The Research Project . (5th ed.). Caracas: Episteme.
  • J. & Humanes, M., (2004). The scientific method applied to research in social communication. Barcelona, ​​Spain: InCom-UAB Communication Portal.
  • Meyer, J., (2009). Setting agendas in the media: Repercussions of the Marín-Nacif-Cacho media scandal . Latin Magazine of Social Communication. Vol. No. 64. Puebla, Mexico.
  • Odriozola, J., (2012). Cybermedia and Agenda Setting: the configuration of the international media agenda . Madrid, Spain: University of Pompeu Fabra.
  • Palella, S. & Martins, F., (2012). Quantitative Research Methodology . Caracas: Editorial Fund of the Libertador Experimental Pedagogical University (FEDUPEL).

Electronic Sources

  • Website traffic, statistics and analytics . Accessed December 4, 2017. Online document available at:
  • Fernandez, F. (2017). Digital media are the main source of news in Venezuela. Accessed January 25, 2018. Online document available at:
  • Profiles. Accessed December 4, 2017. Online document available at:
  • Ministry of the Popular Power of Petroleum and Mining. Accessed December 11, 2017. Available online at:
  • Accessed December 11, 2017. Available online at:
  • Product (2015). Faces and beans . Consulted on January 24, 2018. Online document available at:


Audiovisual Sources

  • Oteyza, C. (2008) Reventón I. Venezuela: Bolívar Films.
  • De Pedro, M. (1975). Juan Vicente Gómez and his time . Venezuela: Bolívar Films.

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