Did you know that plants produce their own food? This process of plant nutrition is called photosynthesis and here are some examples of it.
What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis or chlorophyll function is a biological process where plants play a fundamental role for their nutrition. In it, a biological conversion of inorganic matter occurs in an organic process with the direct action of the sun .
10 examples of photosynthesis
1. Acyclic photophosphorylation
One of the examples of photosynthesis is photophosphorylation, which belongs to the light phase of this biological process.
Therefore, they are divided into acyclic and cyclic, of which the first is associated with the presence of oxygen and the photolysis of water .
For this, in this stage of photosynthesis, two electrons act that are free, coming from the photolysis of water and passing to the transport chain.
Once they enter the transport chain, the electrons are part of the energy synthesis in the form of triphosphate, that is, ATP within the stroma.
Finally, the invested energy passes to the cytochromes, breaking down into protons, then they pass to plastocyanin, leaving behind a water molecule for four photons.
2. Cyclic photophosphorylation
The cyclic photophosphorylation process is called anoxygenic , that is, there is no oxygen evolution or oxidation.
Consecutively, the process is activated when there is generation of electrons, which without the intervention of the molecules of the photolysis of the water, go directly to another stage.
Therefore, the system compensates for the loss of ATP energy from the acyclic phase and moving to the dark phase of photosynthesis.
With respect to the later phase, the photons are sent to the ferredoxin and again, they enter the cytochrome to be able to return to the previous cycle or photosystem I.
In this process, the stomata of the leaves play an important role by being activated to prevent water loss.
Likewise, when there is a period of drought or an incidence in the frequency of rains, the stoma prevents a considerable loss of water.
Consequently, oxygen plays a major role in increasing concentration and balancing the presence of carbon dioxide.
As part of this respiration process, the Calvin cycle occurs , where carbon dioxide is low compared to oxygen.
Once that happens, there is a catalytic reaction and the oxygen molecule is reduced to two acids, forming a hydrolysis until it becomes a carbohydrate compound.
4. Artificial photosynthesis
This procedure differs in some way from the natural or conventional function of chlorophyll , a component of plants that exert biochemical energy .
For its part, it includes obtaining sunlight for the artificial conversion and synthesis of energy from carbon dioxide and water.
Unlike conventional photosynthesis, this research field applies the solar source with the intention of producing energy from natural organic compounds .
Previously, mention was made of the light phase, which consists of two processes, one acyclic and the other cyclic.
Now, in this light phase, chlorophyll absorbs energy or sunlight, causing the release of electrons and the separation of energy charges.
For its part, electron transport occurs inside the chloroplast, which requires solar energy for the synthesis of ATP during photophosphorylation.
Meanwhile, in this stage of photosynthesis, several fundamental processes occur, such as the synthesis of sugars, the release or not of oxygen, and energy production.
6. Calvin-Benson cycle
For its part, in the dark phase, the Calvin-Benson cycle occurs , which occurs inside the stroma of chloroplasts.
Likewise, the energy released in the form of ATP during the light phase is used to regulate organic matter through inorganic products.
Therefore, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur and carbon dioxide are activated without the presence of sunlight, that is how this stage is named.
Likewise, in this phase the synthesis of biochemical processes such as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur occurs to protect the energy functioning of the plants.
7. Bacterial photosynthesis
We continue with the examples of photosynthesis with those produced by biological organisms, in this case, bacteria .
This process is known as anoxygenic photosynthesis, because bacteria only have photosystem I and therefore no hydrolysis occurs.
As the decomposition of the water molecules does not occur, there is no oxygen and therefore, they must use a cycle to create the energy synthesis.
Therefore, it depends on the direct action of light and another independent one, creating the final destination to obtain ATP and inorganic compounds.
8. Production by Elysia chlorotica
Another example of photosynthesis is that produced by Elysia chlorotica , an animal species that lives in the sea.
For its part, the photosynthetic action of this specimen is due to the digestion of the alga Vaucheria litorea that stores chloroplasts in its digestive system .
Consequently, it stores sustainable energy and takes advantage of photosynthesis to survive, even without the need for food for at least 5 months.
9. Photosynthesis of Ambystoma maculatum
Other ways of obtaining photosynthesis is through the amphibian Ambystoma maculatum , specifically the egg of this animal species.
In this process, a symbiosis occurs, where the egg of this amphibian reduces and blocks the exchange of oxygen and replaces it with photosynthesis.
In this way, this biological process guarantees gas exchange after the development of this reptile.
10. Photosynthesis by replication
To conclude with these examples of photosynthesis, there is a variant of replication of chlorophyll structures, suitable for obtaining nutrients and energy.
This process is similar to artificial photosynthesis, but it is one of the most studied to guarantee a model similar to the conventional one.
Therefore, the artificial chloroplast allows the reaction or photolysis of water, generating gaseous hydrogen and oxygen compounds.
Finally, when obtaining the enzyme ATP-synthetase, a biochemical process occurs with the direct action of solar energy, but in a synthetic way.