These laws have originated in Psychology and one of its closest translations is that of “form.” It is based on how people perceive the elements and their organization.
In this sense, we can say that the Gestalt laws are responsible for studying and explaining the origin of perception through stimuli, that is, it evaluates the impact on the brain of images and what it perceives.
Its name comes from German and was first incorporated by Christian von Ehrenfels . Although it is understood as “form” it does not have a unique translation. However, it can also be translated as “figure”, “structure” or “creation”.
Through certain laws, the mind parameterizes all the elements that reach it through the sensory channels (perception) or through thought and intelligence.
Our experience of the environment , conditions us to perceive a primary character over the elements that make it up. This approach is imposed with the proposition the whole is more than the sum of the parts, with which this psychological school has frequently been identified.
One of its fundamental principles is the so-called law of Prägnanz (Pregnance), which ensures the predisposition to adopt the simplest possible forms during perceptual experience.
Examples of Gestalt Laws
- Law of Closure: The missing elements are added by our mind. The closed and finished forms are more visually stable, which makes us tend to “close” and fill in the perceived forms with our imagination, seeking the best possible organization.
- Contrast law: The positioning of the elements affects the attribution of characteristics (such as their size).
- Law of Proximity: The sequential or partial grouping in the elements exercised by our mind. We tend to group the items that are closer together.Law of Similarity: Similar items usually tend to be grouped together.
- Law of Symmetry: Proportional images are perceived as equal to each other, from a distance.
- Law of Continuity: The mind generates continuity in patterns, even after they disappear.Community Law: Many elements aligned in the same direction tend to be perceived as a single element.
- Law of completion: The brain is responsible for enclosing the contours even if it is not completely closed visually.
- Memory principle: the more times a form is presented, the greater and better the understanding and the way it is perceived. Masking principle: when a shape is good it is able to resist any disturbance to which it is subjected.