APA (American Psychological Association) is a set of standards that establishes the style that the citation of sources and bibliographic references should take in our written works.
The textual citations within the works are short notes that belong to other people (expert authors in the area) and that are used to give greater credibility to what we are proposing in the text.
On the other hand, the references or bibliography are longer texts that must be ordered alphabetically and that are placed at the end of the work to know where the exposed information was taken from. They must be accompanied by the authors surname (s) and the year of creation of the references we are using.
For each type of work (undergraduate thesis, doctoral thesis, research work, etc.) there is a style to create APA citations and references. There are also them for the cases of information taken from digital or printed works, or if it is a web page that is being cited or referenced.
Format of references or bibliography using APA
- An author: (last name, year)
- Two authors: (last name author 1 and last name author 2, year)
- Three, four or five authors : all are cited the first time the reference appears: (Last name author 1, last name author 2 and last name author 3, year). If it is necessary to quote again, then the last name of the first author and “et al” are written. (last name author 1 et al., year)
- When there are six or more authors : always write the first author and et al .: (Last name author 1 et al., Year)
Multiple appointments at the same time:
- If it is the same author, they must be written according to the year: (Author’s last name, 2005, 2007) (Author’s last name, 2009a, 2009b).
- If there are several authors, they must appear in alphabetical order: (Last name author 1, 2005, 2007) (Last name author 1, 2009a, 2009b) (Last name author 1, 2005; Last name author 2 and Last name author 3, 2004; Last name author 4 , Last name author 5 and Last name author 6, 2006)
Authors with the same surnames:
The initial of the first name should be placed to differentiate it from the other: (P. Jackson, 2001) (I. Smith, 2004)
Works without identified author:
Part of the title should be written: (“First words of the title”, year)
If the author is an organization:
The full name is used the first time and then the initials if the same citation is still used: (Universidad de Oriente [UDO], 2004) or (UDO, 2004).
Examples of references or bibliography using APA
- All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (October 13, 2010). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
- Cervantes Barba, C. (2001). The sociology of news and the agenda-setting approach. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/interpuertoricosp/Doc?id=10149393.
- Fernández González, A. (2010). Emotional intelligence as a predictor variable of psychosocial adaptation in students from the Community of Madrid (Doctoral thesis). Recovered from http://hdl.handle.net/10486/4872
- Fernández González, A. (2010). Emotional intelligence as a predictor variable of psychosocial adaptation in students from the Community of Madrid (Doctoral thesis). Autonomous University of Madrid.
- Herbst-Damn, KL and Kulik, JA (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037 / 0278-6184.108.40.206
- Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, for the improvement of educational quality. Official State Gazette, no. 295, of December 10, 2013, pp. 97858 to 97921. Retrieved from http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/12/10/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-12886.pdf.
- López Nieves, L. (2005). The Heart of Voltaire (1st ed.). Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.
- Lugo Filippi, C. (2004). Recipe book for dupes. In I. Ballester, Y. Cruz, HE Quintana, J. Santiago & CM Sarriera (Eds.), The pleasure of reading and writing: Anthology of readings (pp. 88-91). Guaynabo, PR: Editorial Plaza Mayor.
- Schiraldi, GR (2009). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth. doi: 10.1036 / 0071393722.
- Sillick, TJ and Schutte, NS (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2 (2), 28-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap.
- Trillo, J. (Ed.). (2001). The pedagogical legacy of the 20th century for the school of the 21st century. Barcelona: Graó.